In New Testament times, the Roman administration governed the province of Cilicia from the neighbouring province of Syria. People often spoke of Syria and Cilicia as one combined region (Acts 15:23,41; Gal 1:21). The main Roman road from Syria to Asia Minor passed through Cilicia, and Paul travelled this road when setting out on his second and third missionary journeys (Acts 15:41; 18:22-23; for map see PAUL). Much of Cilicia was mountainous and a home for robbers. It was no doubt one of the places Paul had in mind when he spoke of the dangers he frequently faced from robbers (2 Cor 11:26). His home town of Tarsus was the chief city of Cilicia (Acts 21:39).

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